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This online section of the In Focus didactic project, designed for David Hockney: 82 Portraits and 1 Still-Life, explores the importance of portraiture throughout the artist’s career, as well as several keys to his creative process: from his emotional bonds with the people he portrays, to the importance of the mediums he uses to paint his works, always aware of technological advances: the camera lucida, analogue photography, printing, and iPads.
Hockney and Portraiture
”Other people fascinate me, and the most interesting aspect of other people— the point where we go inside them— is the face. It tells all.” David Hockney
Always committed to figurative painting, Hockney (b. 1937, Bradford, United Kingdom) has cultivated artistic genres that were not always viewed as being particularly fashionable in the second half of the 20th century, such as landscapes and portraits. Throughout his extensive career spent both in England and the United States, the artist has often turned to portraiture to depict his closest circle of friends, with the conviction that the better the artist knows the model, the better the portrait.
His curiosity and zeal for experimentation have led him to use a wide variety of styles and techniques. The oil paintings he made when he was a student at the Bradford School of Art (1953–57) depicted his family members, as well as urban landscapes and studio figures. Later, a graphic tale comprising sixteen etchings titled A Rake’s Progress (1961 to 1962, published 1963) included sexual references and told the story of his first trip to New York. In the mid-1960’s, he began to work in Los Angeles, where he portrayed Peter Schlesinger, his partner and preferred model for five years, countless times using different techniques, such as pencil drawings, pen-and-ink, pastel, and acrylic paint. The light on the West Coast of the United States captivated him and drenched his paintings. In the 1970’s and 1980’s, he immortalized people he was close to, such as his parents, the designer Celia Birtwell, and his then partner, Gregory Evans. For these portraits, he used not only paint but also photographic collages which included multiple points of perspective, based on the influence of Picasso and Cubist fragmentation. Likewise, his inquiries into the way the great painting masters were able to use optical instruments, compiled in the book Secret Knowledge, encouraged him to make a series of 280 pencil portraits between 1999 and 2002 using the camera lucida. This device, patented by William Hyde Wollaston in 1807 and made up of a contact lens and a mirror, allowed him to faithfully portray the model even if he did not personally know the subject. Once again, in 2009, although he was immersed in creating landscape paintings of the English countryside, he made a series of portraits using new media, such as the software programs Photoshop and Graphics Tablet. Thus, Hockney continually revisits to the same genre time and again, reinterpreting it according to the different technological advances and his own deepening understanding of the genre.
After a brief period without painting, in 2013 David Hockney felt the urge to pick up the paintbrush yet again in order to paint a portrait of his studio manager, Jean-Pierre Gonçalves de Lima. This work reflects on the fragility of life and signaled the start of the series of portraits featured in this exhibition. They were all executed following the same formula: the models posed for 20 hours in sessions held over the course of three days; they sat in the painter’s studio, seated on a chair on a platform with a blue curtain draped behind. Familiar with the British portrait tradition, the artist drew inspiration from the Old Masters to create a set of portraits with which he seeks to reveal the life essence of his closest companions.
The Secret Portrait – Express Tours
The Express Tours of this exhibition unveil the key ideas behind this series of portraits and the identities of the characters whose appearance and personality will be described by members of the group from the questions asked by other participants. Thus, we will play a game to make virtual, participatory portraits through the use of language, while stimulating different kinds of memory (iconic, echoic, and so on).
Check free Express Tour times for David Hockney: 82 Portraits and 1 Still-life at the Information desk. Limited number of places available on a first-come, first-served basis (20 people max.). No reservations. Tickets: Free with admission for the day. Tour duration: 30 min. Meeting point: Atrium.
Audio guide and adapted guides
The audio guides, available at the Museum entrance, provide further information on the works in each exhibition.
Ask at the Information desk for audio/video guides for people with cognitive, hearing and/or visual impairments.